Article 5: REDD+ Article 5 contains only two paragraphs, but these paragraphs concern at least a dozen decisions and elements of other agreements, and the whole history of this exceptional document is there if you know you have to look for it. A dichotomous interpretation of the CBDR-RC led to an international agreement on the convention and its Kyoto Protocol. Industrialized countries (Annex I) committed themselves to achieving absolute emission reduction or limitation targets, while all other countries (excluding Annex I) did not have such obligations. However, this rigid distinction does not reflect the dynamic diversification among developing countries since 1992, which has resulted in divergent contributions to global emissions and patterns of economic growth (Deleuil, 2012); Dubash, 2009). This led Depledge and Yamin (2009, 443) to describe the dichotomy between Annex I and non-Annex I as “dysfunctional” and “greater weakness of the regime” introduced by the UNFCCC. The EU and its Member States are among the nearly 190 parties to the Paris Agreement. The EU formally ratified the agreement on 5 October 2016, allowing it to enter into force on 4 November 2016. For the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries, which have escaped at least 55% of global emissions, had to deposit their instruments of ratification. For more information on the republication of our articles, see our Reproduction Guidelines.

This article cannot indicate what would be an ideal `cacade` for adaptation in terms of consistency with the subtle differentiation in the Paris Agreement, especially since the Paris Agreement does not make it compulsory to provide information on adaptation in the NDCs. In addition, detailed reference values of countries` adjustment efforts and needs would be needed. Although emerging markets have the highest percentage (14%) of NDCs including measures, plans or strategies for all five sectors (see Figure 2), LDCs and SIDS are the most important for adjustment. The validity of the results is underscored by a similar caissation with regard to the mention of vulnerable sectors and climate risks in NDCs or the number of countries that include information on adaptation costs in their NDCs (see Pauw et al. 2016). To contribute to the objectives of the agreement, countries presented broad national climate change plans (national contributions, NDCs). These are not yet sufficient to meet the temperature targets, but the agreement sets out the way forward for further measures. Rajamani L (2015) Negotiation of the 2015 Climate Agreement: issues relating to legal form and nature.

Research Paper 28. Mitigation Action Plans & Scenarios, Cape Town, South Africa, p. 26 At the same time, the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, hunger and poverty must be halted while sustaining agricultural and food systems, food system transformations and strategies that use the food system to boost economic growth in countries where industrialization is lagging behind. . . .