For a property to be a necessary condition, it must always be present when the effect is present. Since this is the case, we are interested in examining cases where the effect is present and to learning about the characteristics that exist and are absent under the “possible necessary conditions.” Obviously, the properties missing if the effect is present cannot be necessary conditions for effect. This method is also generally described in comparative policy as the most diverse conception of the system. Symbolically, the method of agreement can be presented as: one of the main characteristics of scientific methodology is verification and falsification. Remember J. 4 that an appeal is made to Dieun if we conclude for lack of evidence that something is the case or not. While there are times when a lack of evidence should lead to a judgment that the original claim is not substantiated (as in a criminal court), this is not the case in scientific practices. Symbolically, the method of simultaneous variation can be presented as (with ± represent a displacement): precise determination of causes and effects is not an easy task. We can often confuse or misrepreseg the two because we lack sufficient information. Mill`s methods are attempts to isolate a cause from a complex sequence of events. Even simply referred to as the “common method,” this principle represents only the application of methods of concordance and difference. Philosopher John Stuart Mill has developed a series of five methods (or canons) that analyze and interpret our observations in order to draw conclusions about the cause-and-effect relationships they have. The method of accompanying variation says that if, in a number of situations that lead to a particular effect, we find some ownership of the effect that varies with variation in a factor common to these situations, then we can infer that factor as a cause.
Although Mills` methods are an important part of the serious study of natural phenomena, they have significant constraints. These methods can only be applied with care if all relevant pre-gonal circumstances are taken into account, which cannot be guaranteed in advance. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) was an English philosopher who wrote on a wide range of subjects ranging from language and science to political philosophy. The so-called “mill” methods are five rules for the search for the causes he has proposed. It has been assumed that some of these rules were in fact discussed by the famous Islamic scientist and philosopher Avicenna (980-1037). Symbolically, the common method of concordance and difference as: This situation is an example of the common method of agreement and difference of Mills: the first four students are proof that all those who got sick had eaten Coleslaw, and the four appropriate pairs are evidence that only those who got sick had eaten Coleslaw. This is a strong combination of the first two methods, as it tends to support our idea that real causes are necessary and that the conditions for their effects are sufficient. This reasoning illustrates Mill`s method of residues: many elements of a complex effect are demonstrated by reliable causal beliefs from several elements of a complex cause; All that remains of the effect must have been produced by the remnants of the cause. Note that if we accept the truth of all the relationships of cause, this method becomes an application of the deductive argument.